History - Facial care and its development
Ever since humans have existed, skin care has been around. Cave finds from the Stone Age show that even then oils and various essences were used to care for the skin. Ancient Egypt is considered the cradle of cosmetics. Both sexes anointed their bodies with tinctures and oils, made up lips and cheeks in various shades of red, re-drewd the brows with stibium and colored the eyelids with powdered malachite. The mysterious and legendary mineral malachite (dark green carbonate mineral) has always stood for beauty, sensuality, seduction and curiosity and was consecrated to a goddess in all cultures (Egypt, antiquity, Europe). Caution: The soluble copper in the malachite dust is toxic, however. Using stibium ("antimony" or "gray spit luster", semi-metal: Sb) can no longer be recommended for imitation today. Antimony is poisonous and can cause similar symptoms as arsenic or lead.
To preserve perfection for life in the hereafter
An essential part of the burial rites was the addition of toiletries. First examples were found in graves from the predynastic period (4300-3000 BC). In Egypt, the idea of preserving the beauty of a dead person or the integrity of the body shell and keeping its perfection for life in the hereafter also arose. In the course of the centuries, this custom developed into the ever more perfect and still admired preservation of the body by embalming.
wrinkle preventing face mask made of donkey milk honey and flour
Medical papyri provide information about the state of skin care in pharaonic times. The most extensive of these papyri is the "Papyrus Ebers". It says, for example: "One unit each of terebinth (pistachio tree), wax, fresh behenoil and Cyprus grass are finely ground, put into plant sap and rubbed into the face daily. It eliminates wrinkles on the face. Behenoil is a vegetable oil from the seeds of the horseradish tree (Moringa oleifera), which is still cultivated in some Arab countries. It probably contains natural antioxidants. Against dry skin the papyrus recommends "bile of the cow, oil, gum and ostrich egg flour mix, with vegetable juice dilute and daily the face wash with it".Nefertiti, wife of the Pharao Echnaton (around 1370 B.C.), and Cleopatra (around 47 B.C.) estimated juice of the Aloe Vera for the receipt of their beauty. Cleopatra is also said to have bathed extensively in warm donkey milk to keep her skin supple. The recipe for a nourishing, wrinkle-preventing face mask made from donkey milk, honey and flour was handed down by the Roman Empress Poppaea Sabina (around 62 A.D.) In the following centuries, physical care took a back seat. It was not until the 11th century that the early medical reports of the physician Galen, who had lived in Rome from 153-201, were rediscovered. They formed the basis of medicine and personal care until after the Renaissance (transition from the Middle Ages to modern times, between 1400 and 1600).
The separation of cosmetics and medicine
In the late Middle Ages, cosmetics and medicine were separated into two independent fields.Henri de Mondeville (1260-1320), a doctor of surgery and anatomy and teacher of anatomy in Montpellier (F), distinguished in his textbook of surgery at the beginning of the 14th century between pathological changes in the skin, which required medical treatment, and beautifying treatments of the skin, for which cosmetics were responsible. This was the first written documented step to differentiate between the disciplines of cosmetics and dermatology.
Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland - Pioneer in "modern cosmetics"
Bright and beautiful skin requires care
The skin and especially the complexion are the measure of beauty and care. Because the majority of people first look at the face when they meet someone, the skin of the face is considered an indicator of attractiveness and an expression of personality. Facial skin care has therefore always played a special role in body care.
dream of beautiful skin
Biological reasons for skin care
However, the visual aspect is not the only reason for skin care. Due to the multitude of its tasks it is also necessary for biological reasons to maintain or restore the skin's functional efficiency. This is all the more so as facial skin is considerably thinner than the rest of the body skin and is constantly exposed to a multitude of damaging influences, e.g. environmental toxins, without protection.
Goals of skin care
Skin care is therefore primarily aimed at supporting the skin in its natural functions and, if necessary, regulating them. In order to keep the skin supple, the horny layer must be strengthened in its natural regenerative capacity or the skin's barrier properties must be restored if damage has already occurred. In addition, the skin must be protected against environmental influences and prevented from premature aging. The basic rule is: Only healthy skin is also beautiful. That is why facial skin must be carefully cared for and supported - and that for a lifetime.
The limits of skin care
The needs matter
The right care protects the skin and can support it in its functions, this is scientifically proven. Further research results show that the consequences of skin aging can be halted or slowed down a little and partly - at least to some extent - even reversed. The structure-preserving and regenerative effect of cosmetic active ingredients, which are able to penetrate deep into the skin, is beyond doubt, assures the competence partner Schönheitspflege im IKW. Careful handling of the skin in order to prevent premature skin aging, reduce environmental influences such as UV light damage and to stop the age-related process of skin dehydration should be considered and lived out early on.
Care each skin individually
But specific care is something very individual, because every skin is different and reacts differently to care. For optimal care, therefore, the specific requirements of each skin type must first be determined. The individual skin appearance results from the skin type and the current skin condition or skin texture as well as the external stresses to which the skin is exposed. But beware: no skin diagnosis is valid forever. Because the skin changes continuously, it must be checked again and again whether the skin care products used still correspond to the actual skin condition.
Recognize the current skin condition and care for it properly
In addition to normal skin, there is also oily-damp, oily-dry, low-fat-dry and low-fat-damp skin. Today, this goes beyond the rigid division into the three basic skin types normal, oily (seborrhoic) and dry (sebostatic). It is important to note that the contrast between oily and dry skin is not dry, but low-fat. The contrast of dry is moist. The skin condition also changes in the course of life for various reasons.
Normal skin - Who has it, has it easy
Normal skin is smooth, supple, fine pored and soft. It has sufficient moisture and fat, but does not become greasy. It is well-tensioned, but not tight. Normal skin is easy to clean and care for and is not easily irritated. However, it does not have to remain in this skin condition permanently. External or internal influences, such as prolonged stays in centrally heated or air-conditioned rooms with dry air, can nevertheless cause irritation. Hormonal changes or the wrong care, for example with a cream that is too rich in lipids, can also lead to skin impurities or dryness. Caring for normal skin is quite easy. Cleansing milk or gel, followed by an alcohol-free or low-alcohol facial toner, are suitable for cleansing. The care is adapted to the season, age and external influences. If feelings of tension occur, a light moisturizer (O/W emulsion) can be used once or twice a day. Also select sun protection products that are not too greasy.
Age also plays a decisive role: four times more elderly people than young people are affected by dry, low-fat skin because sebaceous gland production decreases with increasing age. The negative side effects, e.g. the early development of wrinkles and lines caused by the disturbed hydrolipid film and the occurrence of small, itchy skin inflammations, are counterbalanced by the rarer tendency to skin impurities and acne as positive aspects. Pathogenic germs find it difficult to settle on dry skin.
Consistent care is particularly important for dry, low-fat skin. With products rich in fat and moisture, feelings of tension and dryness can be alleviated. Cleansing products should be very mild so as not to additionally irritate the skin, and the subsequent facial toner should be alcohol-free. A rich moisturizing cream (O/W emulsion, medium fat content) is suitable for day care. During the night the fat content can be increased significantly, now fat creams (W/O emulsion, high fat content) can be used, because now a possible greasy shine on the skin is not important. Suitable and targeted UV protection is also necessary. When sunbathing, of course with appropriate sunscreens that are adapted to the skin type and intensity of the sun. In everyday life, when sun exposure is only expected for a short time, for example on the way to work, by using a caring day cream that also provides UV protection.
Dry skin Oily skin and mixed skin
Combination skin, also known as dry oily skin, is when certain parts of the face, such as the forehead, nose and chin, the T-zone, show the characteristics of oily skin, while the skin on the cheeks, around the eyes and other parts of the body appears dry. Dry, oily skin produces too much sebum and has a reduced ability to retain water. The so-called combination skin should be treated in sections according to the respective skin condition. If only one concept is used for all areas, problems can arise in the area that is different in each case. In concrete terms, this means that for combination skin, T-zone and cheeks can hardly be treated successfully with the same cream. And also for cleansing, the individual areas have different requirements.
The actual oily-dry skin is a special form which usually occurs only for a short time. Despite a greasy, shiny shimmer, symptoms such as scaling, a feeling of tension and redness as well as irritation occur. The cause can be an intensive external acne therapy or very strong UV radiation on vacation or in the solarium. Cleansing gel or cleansing milk can be used for cleansing, the facial toner should be alcohol-free if possible. As care, the skin now needs additional moisture, preferably in the form of a gel or possibly a light moisturizing lotion. If in doubt, you should consult your doctor. In addition, of course, avoid the sun and solarium and adjust the acne therapy in consultation with the treating doctor.
Before the care comes the cleaning - always!
Every care application should be preceded by the correct and effective cleansing of the face. Only then is the skin optimally prepared for the application of carefully selected care products. For this purpose, cleansing wipes soaked with active ingredients are also available today.
Only those who care regularly achieve effects
All main care products should be used continuously. The effect does not depend on the quantity, but on the quality of the product and the regularity of application. The careful care always includes the neck and décolleté.
The needs of the skin are variable
The way of life plays a role
At least as important as high-quality skin care products for the "anti-aging" of the skin is, of course, the healthiest possible lifestyle. Regular rest breaks, sufficient oxygen, plenty of exercise, the avoidance of psychological stress and restraint from sunlight, solarium and stimulants promote the health and regeneration of the skin. Overwork, stress, UV light, alcohol and smoking can make us "look old" at an early stage. To prevent this, regular facial care is also supported by a balanced diet rich in vitamins and proteins.
Always drink enough!
Water, i.e. skin moisture, makes the skin smooth and soft. It also transports important active ingredients into the skin cells. Acid-forming stimulants such as black tea, coffee, but also alcohol extract more water from the body than they supply. In this deficiency situation, the body first takes moisture from its periphery - the skin. Therefore it is important to drink enough!
Care according to the biorhythm
The entire body, and thus also cell growth, is subject to a fixed rhythm. Active and passive phases alternate every twelve hours. During the day, the cells are in the stress phase (passive) of skin metabolism, during which the skin is busy defending itself against aggressive disturbing factors from the environment. Renewal takes place in the nocturnal active regeneration phase; 70 percent of the cell division process takes place during this time. Interventions in the biological-biochemical rhythm, e.g. through night work or sleep disorders, can lead to premature aging of the skin. Under normal conditions, however, the biorhythm offers ideal conditions for cosmetic care substances to develop their effect during the nightly rest. The circadian principle, i.e. the sequence of life processes in a daily 24-hour rhythm, forms the basis for the range of different products for day and night care and body care.
Day cream for normal skin
For normal skin, a day cream is recommended which preserves the condition of the skin and, if necessary, has a balancing effect. Especially extra light emulsions are suitable for daily care. The aim is to provide the skin with intensive moisture without creating an undesirable shine effect. The complexion should appear naturally matt. Normal skin needs a certain amount of oil, but oily or combination skin cannot tolerate it.
Day cream for dry skin
Day cream for sensitive skin
Day cream for stressed skin
Tinted Day Creams
Night care for sensitive skin
Night care for dry skin
Intensive care for the eye area
Dryness and age wrinkles around the eyes are particularly undesirable. But why are there more wrinkles here than in other areas of the face? The skin around the eyes is only just under half a millimeter thick, and thus only about a quarter to an eighth as thick as the rest of the facial skin. In addition, there is hardly any subcutaneous fatty tissue and only very few sebaceous and sweat glands. The important supporting fibers of the skin, elastin and collagen, are also lower in the eye area; moisture is difficult to bind. In addition, the eyes move frequently. Every time you blink - and this happens more than 10,000 times a day - the skin around the eyes wrinkles and becomes strained.
Special eye contour products intensively supply the sensitive eye area with lipids and moisture factors. Many also contain active ingredients that combat free radicals, which are responsible for premature skin aging, and stimulate the cell renewal process. At the same time, they can have a decongesting effect and soften dark circles under the eyes. For example, specially shaped, self-adhesive gel pads are available which release their concentrated active ingredients such as ceramides (a subgroup of lipids) and glycerin in a targeted manner. They provide immediate care with intensive, long-lasting moisture. The human skin contains ceramides primarily in the "putty substance" between the dead horny cells of the epidermis. They help to protect the skin from drying out. Glycerin additionally binds moisture. The area around the eyes can thus be smoothed, it receives new elasticity and feels cool and fresh. With regular, continuous application, the visible reduction of fine eye wrinkles is ideally added. The care pads are applied to cleansed and dried skin and simply removed after the end of the application time.
Another example of products are two-phase gels for intensive treatment of wrinkles and dark circles under the eyes. At the same time, the gel base has a moisturizing and decongesting effect.
Eye care products are applied to cleansed skin before the usual care. Due to the area of application, these products are tested particularly carefully with regard to their compatibility. Ophthalmological tests often also ensure suitability for contact lens wearers. In case of doubt, please ask the trade or the manufacturer.
One of the most rapidly effective skin care products is a mask. With the right mask, tired facial features, sallow and poorly circulated skin and small impurities can be removed, the manufacturers assure. Most masks are available in creamy form. They contain special complexes of active ingredients that have been proven in skin care, e.g. liposome enrichment. Cream masks are used for dry, sensitive and irritated skin.
Vitalizing masks may, for example, contain small doses of salicylic acid, which has a strong keratolytic effect (scaling, peeling of the horny layer). Similar to a facial massage, increased blood circulation causes greater tension in the blood vessels, thus tightening the skin. The skin becomes rosier, looks more vital and is well prepared for make-up. Vitalizing masks are sometimes also offered as lifting masks, because the skin tightening is supposed to work like a mini-lift. Air-impermeable masks create a small accumulation of heat on the skin and thus also have a blood circulation-promoting and skin-tightening effect.
The aim of cooling and refreshing moisturizing masks is to provide the skin with intensive, long-lasting moisture and soothing active ingredients at the same time. Facial masks are applied to cleansed skin once or twice a week and removed after the prescribed exposure time.